Hence, it contributes considerably to the sensor fabrication costs. Integrated Smart Sensors: Design and Calibration explains how to include a digitally programmable calibration feature in an integrated smart sensor. Several related topics are discussed as well, including calibration and linearization techniques. Calibration circuits using analog signal processing, digital signal processing, or a mixed-mode technique based on sigma-delta modulation are presented, as well as the other circuits needed in a smart sensor. The combination of a programmable calibration circuit and a digital bus interface, integrated together with the sensor, enables automation of the calibration procedure for a large batch of such integrated smart sensors at a time.
This will help to reduce the costs of the sensor calibration, and, thus, to decrease the price per sensor, in particular for mass-produced sensors. Integrated Smart Sensors: Design and Calibration will be of interest to analog design engineers, researchers and students. It can also be used as an advanced text on the subject. This is an important book. I recommend it. Help Centre. My Wishlist Sign In Join. Be the first to write a review. Add to Wishlist.
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Browse the products and services designed to meet the needs of these common industry roles:. ISA awarded me a scholarship to help fund my education.
I would not have been able to keep going to school if I had not received it. So, I want to give thanks to the many people of the ISA who work on securing the future of the organization just as the original founders had. ISA was and is forged and founded from true honesty and integrity that you will not find in to many other professions. Process instruments consist of two main components: a sensor and a transmitter.
The sensor is sometimes part of the instrument assembly, as with some pressure instruments, but is more often separate, as with analytical instruments, such as those used for pH measurement. Before sensors could become smart, transmitters had to gain intelligence by adapting digital technologies. It would not have been practical, or sometimes even possible, to connect a smart digital sensor to a simple analog transmitter.
Industrial instrumentation has progressed significantly since the s, when the vast majority of instruments simply had a single or mA analog output proportional to the process variable. Some sensors had the inherent ability to measure multiple process variables, but they required multiple analog outputs to access this additional information. With an analog transmitter with a single analog output, secondary variables remained stranded, as did data regarding the configuration or health of the instrument.
The process variable was relegated to a dedicated analog signal transmitted from the instrument over two wires to an indicator or control system, with a multidrop configuration. Working with these instruments required direct access to the device and manual adjustment by maintenance personnel.
What was missing from this environment was any information about the instrument itself, or about secondary process variables, such as the temperature from a pH sensor. In the early s, instrument vendors realized the potential benefits of digital technology in instruments. There was a wealth of useful data contained in an instrument, including other measured process variables, device configuration, alarm limits, operating time, operating conditions, diagnostic information, and a broad range of device health data.
Obtaining this data from an instrument helps optimize the use of the device, and ultimately improves process performance, and HART communications emerged as one of the first ways to access this stranded data to make an instrument smart. HART digital technology allowed communication with an analog instrument using a digital communication signal Bell transmitted over the same two wires as the analog output.
This digital signal provided two-way communications between the instrument and a host without disrupting the output, allowing various pieces of data to be accessed. Using HART, personnel could talk to the instrument and perform configuration or diagnostics-all while it was making one or more real-time process measurements. At the same time, various companies were making progress in the development of other digital technologies that would be transmitted over dedicated communication highways, each offering specific benefits.
In a similar fashion with respect to wireless digital communications, many technologies have been reduced to two clear leaders: ISA and WirelessHART.
The realization that instruments contained a vast amount of valuable data that could be bidirectionally communicated between instruments and control systems dramatically changed the way companies operated a process and managed assets-and it drove the rapid expansion of digital technology in the industrial environment. There are very few instruments today that are not smart, at least to some extent. From the s to , digital communication technologies emerged in industrial markets, and today are providing significant benefits.
1 1. 1 Introduction The (signal processing and storage) capacity ofthe human brain enables us to become powerful autonomous beings, but only if our brains. Integrated Smart Sensors: Design and Calibration. Gert van der Horn and Johan H. HuijsingKluwer Academic Publishers pp.
Around the same time, office computer networks were evolving. With networked computers and the Internet, there came Internet-enabled coordination and integration across the value chain, allowing suppliers to reach customers and business partners regardless of geography. This Internet-enabled integration has also allowed enhanced access to process data from the point of measurement all the way to the business system level and beyond.
Not only can one see process data critical to the operation of a process, but one can also access this key asset information. As we move well into the second decade of this century, basic information technology has become more deeply embedded in industrial and consumer products, allowing them to become part of the Internet of Things IoT. In one lifetime, process control migrated from pneumatics to electrical analog, and then to sophisticated digital communications extending out to the Internet.