By: Martin Mwongela Kavua. Pages: — Lessons from Partnerships between University and Organizations. By: Lawrence Eron. A Critical Reflection on Developments Since By: Cebsile P Nxumalo. By: Ali Sani Side. She has published monographs and many articles on Inclusive Education in Africa and elsewhere, including an introductory chapter for the Africa section of the Second International Handbook of Urban Education Pink and Noblit, This book will be a useful reference for students of education, development and globalisation studies and education policy studies alike, as well for policymakers, practitioners, researchers and others involved in developing Inclusive Education policy and practice in Africa.
Terms and Conditions Privacy Statement. Powered by: PubFactory. Sign in to annotate. These teachers were drawn from both government and private secondary schools in Bangladesh ADB, In order to prepare teachers for inclusive practice, the project picked three districts of the country. In the project documents these districts are termed as outreach districts DSHE, and were considered as vulnerable to basic resources and facilities e. The target was to select on an average 33 secondary schools and teachers from each district.
In total, in-service secondary teachers were supposed to be received a professional development program to equip themselves with knowledge and skills required for inclusive practice. It seems that the reports concentrate more on providing descriptions of input and process than on change achieved.
By and large the project has prepared and disseminated various policy papers on gender and inclusive education, involved teachers in professional development activities, head teachers and SMC members in awareness raising activities, teacher educators in Master trainer programs ADB, ADB has described some information regarding gender and inclusive education situation.
According to this report, SSC examinations of showed an increase in pass rates from The pass rate further increased to Teacher professional learning opportunities. By May , 14, students had successfully completed the pre-service one-year Bachelor of Education Program in Government teacher training colleges; 14, practicing teachers have taken the initial basic module of a 3-month secondary teaching certificate STC ; , teachers have taken the first continuous professional development CPD of a series of three CPD programs to use participatory teaching approaches in the classroom, instead of rote learning.
From the three outreach districts classroom teachers had received professional development on inclusive practices.
It is also reported that newly appointed head teachers have received their initial 35 days administrative training CIDA, Community awareness. In a monthly progress report in January , it was reported that a total number of SMC members received awareness training on IE. As a result of this program, these teachers are expected to be able to deal with issues of gender, special educational needs and education for ethnic populations. Beyond input and process: Change in practice Change in classroom practice was one of the foremost targets of the TQISE project as legacy of the policies described earlier.
In a recent study, Khan argues that secondary teachers have different interpretations about the concepts of inclusive education. In their understanding IE is fairly vague and broader rather than focused and specific.
These teachers have attended the CPD offered by the project. The field data from another ongoing study shows that the secondary teachers felt that not only duration of professional development but also the delivery mode of IE topics by the trainers needed to be clearer. An analysis indicates that professional development activities designed by the TQI-SEP were more aligned with conventional off-site approach.
Classroom observation of teacher practice implies that there have been some changes in the instructional behaviours in relation to inclusive practice.
Teachers, who have attended professional development activities for inclusive practice, added few elements of inclusive practice in their everyday teaching conventional teacher-centered teaching , such as, repositioning students before starting the lesson for better participation, providing opportunities for cooperative learning, explaining lessons using known experience etc. Statistical comparisons of pre-stage and post-stage teaching data were significant for some of these behaviours. However, some important elements which are among the core inclusive practices were not found in the instructional behaviours of these teachers.
Moreover, teachers lack skills for involving students into active learning process. Therefore, it can be argued that there is some changes in the classroom practices as a result of TQI- SEP professional learning, however, that is often not appropriate or sufficient to address the diverse needs of the all learners. Khan considered insufficient teacher professional learning opportunities as a dominant issue on the ways of implementing IE at the secondary level education.
Evidence suggests that engaging classroom teachers in to high quality professional development is inherent for inclusive practice OECD, In short, the TQI-SEP professional development activities have created some awareness or enthusiasm about inclusion among the secondary teachers. However, the practice of inclusion in their classroom instruction is far to reach. Therefore, the scope of the professional learning opportunities needs to be extended nationwide.
Moreover, high quality professional learning opportunities for all teachers and school- based supports are inherent ingredient for successful IE. This was considered as one of the key indicator of inclusive classroom environment. In addition, inclusion of women member in the SMC is yet to achieve the target. Within these years, free and Compulsory primary education for all, establishing right to access to education for the children with SEN, teaching through mother language for the children from ethnic community are few of them.
However, there are some issues embedded in the policies, laws or legislations that clearly oppose the philosophy of inclusive education and weaken the practice. These unclear policy guidelines make a niche for conceptual confusion among the practitioners and classroom teachers regarding IE which in turn impedes its implementation in classrooms.
Thus, the existing policy environment generate constrains and contradictions when attempts are made towards inclusion.
SENCOs, or other education professionals who may wish to study or work in international contexts, and developing countries in particular, will learn much from this book' - SENCO Update. H, Chowdhury, D. Articles Cited by. Seller Inventory FJ They are all based at the University of Sydney, Australia.
We have shown that our national level IE policies are mostly followed by the international policies. Therefore it can be hardly expected that the IE guidelines are underpinned by the inclusion philosophy that fit to national context.
Even within the national context, a noticeable feature of IE policies is that they are imposed from the center to periphery. This means teachers and other stakeholders do practice what the providers want and the ways they want. This approach is subject to serious criticism. It is well established that IE is a context-oriented phenomena. It is also suggested that IE sustains within an environment of collaborative enquiry where policy makers, practitioners and other stakeholders work together to understand the school culture and focus on the practical solution of problems Ainscow, or reducing barriers to learning faced by some learners Ainscow, However, in our national policies e.
Experience suggests that the teachers in Bangladesh feel hesitant or maintain egoistic values that encourage them not to 'public the self' as ignorant of the subject or problems. It can be contended that as a result of policies, adopting initiatives for practice become obligatory which is reflected through the two major programs TQI-SEP and PEDP for implementing inclusive education in primary and secondary education.
Under these programmes schools and teachers are ready, at least officially, to accept all children in to their classrooms. As a result, enrolment of special needs, girls, disadvantaged children and children from ethnic community has been increased in both primary and secondary schools. Moreover, teachers in Bangladesh have been trained for the first time in inclusive education. Many of the schools have been equipped with facilities like ramps, furniture and assistive devices.
It is to question how many of them are under these facilities in real context. Evidence suggests that changed belief system is a significant factor for implementing new innovation such as inclusive education. Ahmed, Sharma and Deppeler strongly suggest that it is of utmost important that there should be some components that enhance and promote teachers positive belief system towards inclusive education , This means these policies may have make a contribution but not necessarily they lead to change in thinking or practices.
References Ahmmed, M. Variables affecting teachers' attitudes towards inclusive education in Bangladesh. Journal of Research in Special Educational Needs, 12 3 , Looking to the future : towards a common sense of purpose. Australasian Journal of Special Education, 29 2 , Ainscow, M. Making sure that every child matters: Enhancing equity within education systems. Hargreaves, A.
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Developing inclusive education systems: How can we move policies forward? Improving schools, developing inclusion. Ajzen, I.