Biological Responses in Cancer

Immunotherapy of cancer is a part of biotherapy
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Biological Responses in Cancer

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Biological response modifier

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The synergistic effect of radiotherapy and immunotherapy: a promising but not simple partnership. Crit Rev Oncol Hematol.

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Low-dose radiation-induced risk in spermatogenesis. Stewart A. A-bomb data: detection of bias in the life span study cohort. Environ Health Perspect. Limitations in predicting the space radiation health risk for exploration astronauts. NPJ Microgravity. Cucinotta FA, Durante M. Cancer risk from exposure to galactic cosmic rays: implications for space exploration by human beings. Lancet Oncol. Download references. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.

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Abstract Background The conventional concept of radiation protection is based on epidemiological studies of radiation that support a positive correlation between dose and response. Hypothesis We hypothesize that the health risks of non-uniform radiation exposure are lower than the same dose at a uniform exposure, due to TSE following irradiation. Conclusion The detection of spatiotemporal dose distribution could be of scientific importance for more accurate individual risk assessment of exposure to environmental radiation. Open Peer Review reports. Full size image. References 1. In radiation oncology, research and development in the last three decades has led to considerable improvement in our understanding of the differential responses of normal and cancer cells.

The biological effectiveness of radiation depends on the linear energy transfer LET , total dose, number of fractions and radiosensitivity of the targeted cells or tissues. Radiation can either directly or indirectly by producing free radicals damages the genome of the cell. This has been challenged in recent years by a newly identified phenomenon known as radiation induced bystander effect RIBE. Understanding the cancer cell responses during the fractions or after the course of irradiation will lead to improvements in therapeutic efficacy and potentially, benefitting a significant proportion of cancer patients.